Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Hawza Najaf

Hawza Najaf

The Najaf Seminary (Arabic: حوزة النجف), also known as the al-Hawza Al-Ilmiyya (الحوزة العلمية), is the oldest and one of the most important Shia seminaries (hawza) in the world. It is located in the city of Najaf in Iraq. The school also operates a campus in Karbala, Iraq.

Ali al-Sistani (current chancellor of Hawza 'Ilmiyya Najaf) and Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei (ex-chancellor of Hawza 'Ilmiyya Najaf)

It is located near the Imam Ali Mosque. It was established in the 11th century by Grand Ayatollah Shaykh al-Tusi.

History

Shaykh Tusi went to Baghdad to continue education. After 12 years, he was forced to leave Baghdad and go to Najaf for sectarian differences.[1] He established the seminary in Najaf in 430 AH (the 11th century AD),[2] which continued as a center of study until the establishment of modern Iraq in 1921. He died in 460 AH (1067 CE).[3][4] The seminar was one of the biggest and most important hawza of the world for educating and training Shia clerics.[5]

Subjects

The subjects taught at the seminary include:[6]

Trained scholars

Some of the known Shia Grand Ayatollahs were trained in the Najaf seminary.[7]

See also

References

  1. Jaffer - XKP, Mulla Asghar Ali M. FIQH and FUQAHA (PDF). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (November 4, 2015). ISBN 978-1519106759. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-26.
  2. "Part 2: The Fuqaha". World Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna-Asheri Muslim Communities.
  3. "Hawza - Advanced Islamic Studies". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Archived from the original on 8 March 2011.
  4. Sreeram Chaulia. "Shiites and Democracy". Mideast Monitor. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.
  5. "A rare look inside the 'heart of society' for Iraq's Shi'ites".
  6. "Hawza - Advanced Islamic Studies". Archived from the original on 2011-03-08.
  7. Khoshkhu, Rasoul Imani. "A Glimpse at the Major Shi'a Seminaries part 1". Ahlul Bayt World Assembly.
  8. Ghobadzadeh, Naser (2015). Religious Secularity: A Theological Challenge to the Islamic State (Religion and Global Politics). Oxford University Press; 1 edition (December 1, 2014). ISBN 978-0199391172.
  9. Litvak, Meir (2 May 2002). Shi'i Scholars of Nineteenth-Century Iraq: The 'Ulama' of Najaf and Karbala'. Cambridge University Press (May 2, 2002). ISBN 978-0521892964.
  10. Hairi, A.; Murata, S. (1984). "AḴŪND ḴORĀSĀNĪ". Encyclopædia Irannica.
  11. Mottahedeh, Roy (18 October 2014). The Mantle of the Prophet. Oneworld (August 15, 2000). ISBN 978-1851682348.
  12. Who's who in Iraq: Ayatollah Sistani, 26 August, 2004
  13. "The Wall Street Journal: Index, Volume 2". Dow Jones & Co., 1992. 1992.
  14. Allawi, Ali A. (2007). The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace. Yale University Press; Reprint edition (March 18, 2008). p. 207. ISBN 978-0300136142. al-Khoei is lead rijal.
  15. "Haeri Yazdi، Ayatollah Abdulkarim".
  16. Mottahedeh, The Mantle of the Prophet, (1985, 2000), p.229
  17. Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (8 October 1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press; Revised edition (October 8, 1998). ISBN 978-0195119152.
  18. Arjomand, Saïd Amir (January 1988). Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism (SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies). SUNY Press; Annotated edition (July 8, 1988). ISBN 978-0887066399.
  19. Mottahedeh, Roy (18 October 2014). The Mantle of the Prophet. Oneworld (August 15, 2000). p. 210. ISBN 978-1851682348.
  20. Esposito, John L. (21 October 2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (Oxford Quick Reference). Oxford University Press; 1 edition (October 21, 2004). p. 21. ISBN 978-0195125597.
  21. The course of Imam Khomeini's struggles narrated by SAVAK [Seir e mobarezat e imam khomeini be revayat e savak] (in Persian). Vol. 1. p. 45. and http://english.khamenei.ir/news/2130/bio
  22. Mottahedeh, The Mantle of the Prophet, (1985, 2000), p.231
  23. "Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi".
  24. Chehabi, Abisaab, Houchang , Rula Jurdi (2006). Distant Relations: Iran and Lebanon in the Last 500 Years. I.B.Tauris (April 2, 2006). ISBN 978-1860645617.
  25. Biography of Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei by Amid Algar, University of California, Berkeley, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies.
  26. Legenhausen, Dr. Muhammad. "'Allamah Tabataba'i And Contemporary Philosophical Theology". ALHODA PUBLISHERS.
  27. Husayni Tihrani, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn (2011). Shining Sun. Islamic College for Advanced Studie; UK ed. edition (May 1, 2011). ISBN 978-1904063407.
  28. Randall, Yafia Katherine (31 March 2016). Sufism and Jewish-Muslim Relations: The Derekh Avraham Order in Israel. Routledge; 1 edition (April 7, 2016). ISBN 978-1138914032.
  29. Rizvi, Arsalan. "Sayyid Sharafuddin al-Musawi".
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.